There is a strong contribution for genetic factors in determining risk for schizophrenia. Twin and family studies have historically reported significant heritability for schizophrenia, often summarized as 81%.

Large collaborative international studies have revealed that many common genetic variants, which are spread across the genome, can each contribute small increased risks. [Source: Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2014]

Many non-genetic and environmental risk factors have been implicated in schizophrenia risk, including season of birth, urbanicity, migrant status, paternal age, birth complications, infections, drug use, childhood adversity and traumatic life events.

QBI researchers have pioneered the study of developmental Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor in schizophrenia.