Neurobiology

About

With a particular focus on dopamine systems, the Eyles laboratory focusses on how risk factors for schizophrenia and autism, such as developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency and maternal immune activation, change the way the brain develops and functions. In 2015 the group made four major discoveries: 

1. In 2010 they established that low maternal levels of vitamin D was a risk factor for schizophrenia. The group has now initiated studies into the relationship between DVD deficiency and autism, with five international collaborations funded by two NIH grants and one NHMRC grant. Initial results indicate DVD deficiency is also a risk factor for impaired social behaviour in children, and autism in particular.

2. Schizophrenia is closely associated with abnormalities in dopamine transmission. The lab’s work in DVD-deficient animals confirms early abnormalities in dopamine development and turnover. In 2015, using human cell systems, the group described for the first time how vitamin D exerts direct control over dopamine production via the vitamin D receptor (Neuroscience, 2015). 

3. The group’s collaboration in Zurich has now shown vitamin D is capable of blocking all symptom phenotypes in a maternal immune activation model of schizophrenia. This work (currently under review) has tremendous translational potential.

4. Sub-cortical dopamine systems are pre-symptomatically hyperactive in schizophrenia. Using a novel genetic construct used to treat Parkinson’s disease (Lund University), the group developed a model of this important aspect of the schizophrenia prodrome. In collaboration with the clinical group who first showed that dopamine abnormalities were pre-symptomatic in patients at Imperial College London, the Eyles lab were able to completely replicate this phenomenon in an animal model. The group hopes that, using this model, they will be able to trial all current agents directed against preventing the clinical transition to schizophrenia.

Contact

  +61 7 334 66370

  d.eyles@uq.edu.au


Group Publications

Research Areas

  • Dopamine systems 
  • Schizophrenia
  • Autism
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Maternal immune activation 


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Group Leader


Research Members


Students


Support Staff

  • Ms Pauline Ko

    Conjoint Lab Manager
    Queensland Brain Institute
  • Dr Angela Dean

    Affiliate Lecturer
    School of Psychology
    Research Fellow
    School of Communication and Arts
    Research Fellow
    School of Biological Sciences


Gestational vitamin D deficiency and autism-related traits: the Generation R Study

Vinkhuyzen, A. A. E., Eyles, D. W., Burne, T. H. J., Blanken, L. M. E., Kruithof, C. J., Verhulst, F., Jaddoe, V. W., Tiemeier, H. and McGrath, J. J. (2016) Gestational vitamin D deficiency and autism-related traits: the Generation R Study. Molecular Psychiatry, . doi:10.1038/mp.2016.213

Vitamin D signaling and the differentiation of developing dopamine systems

Pertile, Renata A. N., Cui, Xiaoying and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016) Vitamin D signaling and the differentiation of developing dopamine systems. Neuroscience333 193-203. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.07.020

Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents

Moe, Aung Aung Kywe, Kurniawan, Nyoman D., Alexander, Suzanne, Cui, Xiaoying, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016) Risperidone induces long-lasting changes in the conditioned avoidance response and accumbal gene expression selectively in animals treated as adolescents. Neuropharmacology108 264-274. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.04.035

Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: a review of studies in laboratory rodents

Moe, Aung Aung Kywe, Scott, James G., Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016) Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: a review of studies in laboratory rodents. Journal of Psychopharmacology30 8: 771-794. doi:10.1177/0269881116654776

Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes

Miliku, Kozeta, Vinkhuyzen, Anna, Blanken, Laura M. E., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Hofman, Albert, Tiemeier, Henning, Steegers, Eric A. P., Gaillard, Romy and Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. (2016) Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition103 6: 1514-1522. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123752

The relationship between vitamin D status and allergic diseases in New Zealand preschool children

Cairncross, Carolyn, Grant, Cameron, Stonehouse, Welma, Conlon, Cath, McDonald, Barry, Houghton, Lisa, Eyles, Darryl, Camargo, Carlos A., Coad, Jane and von Hurst, Pamela (2016) The relationship between vitamin D status and allergic diseases in New Zealand preschool children. Nutrients8 6: . doi:10.3390/nu8060326

Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood eczema: The Generation R Study

Gazibara, Tatjana, Elbert, Niels J., den Dekker, Herman T., de Jongste, Johan C., Reiss, Irwin, McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Tiemeier, Henning, Jaddoe, Vincent W. V., Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A. and Duijts, Liesbeth (2016) Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood eczema: The Generation R Study. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology27 3: 283-289. doi:10.1111/pai.12530

Minimizing matrix effects for the accurate quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS

Kvaskoff, David, Heath, Alicia K., Simila, Henry A., Ko, Pauline, English, Dallas R. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2016) Minimizing matrix effects for the accurate quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS. Clinical Chemistry62 4: 639-646. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2015.251538

25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and all-cause mortality: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

Heath, Alicia K., Williamson, Elizabeth J., Kvaskoff, David, Hodge, Allison M., Ebeling, Peter R., Baglietto, Laura, Neale, Rachel E., Giles, Graham G., Eyles, Darryl W. and English, Dallas R. (2016) 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and all-cause mortality: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Public Health Nutrition, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S1368980016000501

Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood lung function and asthma: the Generation R Study

Gazibara, Tatjana, den Dekker, Herman T., de Jongste, Johan C., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Reiss, Irwin, Franco, Oscar H., Tiemeier, Henning, Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. and Duijts, Liesbeth (2016) Associations of maternal and fetal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with childhood lung function and asthma: the Generation R Study.Clinical and Experimental Allergy46 2: 337-346. doi:10.1111/cea.12645

Behavioural sensitisation to MK-801 is dose-dependent and independent of environmental context

Lefevre, Emilia M., Eyles, Darryl W. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2016) Behavioural sensitisation to MK-801 is dose-dependent and independent of environmental context. Behavioural Brain Research298 Part B: 241-245. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.11.014

The impact of vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in rodents

Overeem, Kathie, Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2016) The impact of vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in rodents. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences7 47-52. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.11.012

Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children

Cairncross, C.T., Stonehouse, W., Conlon, C. A., Grant, C. C., McDonald, B., Houghton, L. A., Eyles, Darryl, Camargo Jr, C. A., Coad, J. and von Hurst, P. R. (2016) Predictors of vitamin D status in New Zealand preschool children.Maternal and Child Nutrition, . doi:10.1111/mcn.12340

Vitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator

Cui, X., Pertile, R., Liu, P. and Eyles, D. W. (2015) Vitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator. Neuroscience304 90-100. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.048

Wolbachia influences the production of octopamine and affects Drosophila male aggression

Rohrscheib, C. E., Bondy, E., Josh, P., Riegler, M., Eyles, D., van Swinderen, B., Weible, M. W. and Brownlie, J. C. (2015) Wolbachia influences the production of octopamine and affects Drosophila male aggression. Applied and Environmental Microbiology81 14: 4573-4580. doi:10.1128/AEM.00573-15

Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research

Cui, Xiaoying, Gooch, Helen, Groves, Natalie J., Sah, Pankaj, Burne, Thomas H., Eyles, Darryl W. and McGrath, John J. (2015) Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology148 305-309. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.11.004

Rhinoviruses significantly affect day-to-day respiratory symptoms of children with asthma

Tovey, Euan R., Stelzer-Braid, Sacha, Toelle, Brett G., Oliver, Brian G., Reddel, Helen K., Willenborg, Christiana M., Belessis, Yvonne, Garden, Frances L., Jaffe, Adam, Strachan, Roxanne, Eyles, Darryl, Rawlinson, William D. and Marks, Guy B. (2015) Rhinoviruses significantly affect day-to-day respiratory symptoms of children with asthma.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology135 3: 663-669.e12. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.020

Heritability of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor Type 1 Expression and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Adolescent Twins

Mills, Natalie T., Wright, Margaret J., Henders, Anjali K., Eyles, Darryl W., Baune, Bernhard T., McGrath, John J., Byrne, Edna M., Hansell, Narelle K., Birosova, Eva, Scott, James G., Martin, Nicholas G., Montgomery, Grant W., Wray, Naomi R. and Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E. (2015) Heritability of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor Type 1 Expression and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Adolescent Twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics18 1: 28-35. doi:10.1017/thg.2014.70

Autism spectrum disorder and low vitamin D at birth: a sibling control study

Fernell, Elisabeth, Bejerot, Susanne, Westerlund, Joakim, Miniscalco, Carmela, Simila, Henry, Eyles, Darryl, Gillberg, Christopher and Humble, Mats B. (2015) Autism spectrum disorder and low vitamin D at birth: a sibling control study. Molecular Autism6 1: 3.1-3.9. doi:10.1186/2040-2392-6-3

Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency based on maternal mid-gestation and neonatal cord bloods: the Generation R Study

Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E., Eyles, Darryl W., Burne, Thomas H., Blanken, Laura M.E., Kruithof, Claudia J., Verhulst, Frank, Jaddoe, Vincent W., Tiemeier, Henning and McGrath, John J. (2015) Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency based on maternal mid-gestation and neonatal cord bloods: the Generation R Study. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry And Molecular Biology164 161-167. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.09.018

Vitamin D status during fetal life and childhood kidney outcomes

Miliku, K., Voortman, T., Franco, O. H., McGrath, J. J., Eyles, D. W., Burne, T. H., Hofman, A., Tiemeier, H. and Jaddoe, V. W. V. (2015) Vitamin D status during fetal life and childhood kidney outcomes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition70 5: 629-634. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.216

Ontogeny of small RNA in the regulation of mammalian brain development

Hollins, Sharon L., Goldie, Belinda J., Carroll, Adam P., Mason, Elizabeth A., Walker, Frederick R., Eyles, Darryl W. and Cairns, Murray J. (2014) Ontogeny of small RNA in the regulation of mammalian brain development. BMC Genomics15 777: 1-13. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-777

Measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in archived dried blood spots are reliable and accurately reflect those in Plasma

Heath, Alicia K., Williamson, Elizabeth J., Ebeling, Peter R., Kvaskoff, David, Eyles, Darryl W and English, Dallas R. (2014) Measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in archived dried blood spots are reliable and accurately reflect those in Plasma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism99 9: 3319-3324. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-1269

Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of multiple sclerosis

Ueda, Peter, Rafatnia, Farshid, Baarnhielm, Maria, Frobom, Robin, Korzunowicz, Greg, Lonnerbro, Ragnar, Hedstrom, Anna Karin, Eyles, Darryl, Olsson, Tomas and Alfredsson, Lars (2014) Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology76 3: 338-346. doi:10.1002/ana.24210

MK-801-induced behavioural sensitisation alters dopamine release and turnover in rat prefrontal cortex

Cui, Xiaoying, Lefevre, Emilia, Turner, Karly M., Coelho, Carlos M., Alexander, Suzy, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2014) MK-801-induced behavioural sensitisation alters dopamine release and turnover in rat prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology232 3: 509-517. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3689-9

Intracellular distribution of the vitamin D receptor in the brain: Comparison with classic target tissues and redistribution with development

Eyles, D. W., Liu, P. Y., Josh, P. and Cui, X. (2014) Intracellular distribution of the vitamin D receptor in the brain: Comparison with classic target tissues and redistribution with development. Neuroscience268 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.02.042

Season of birth, neonatal vitamin D status, and cardiovascular disease risk at 35 y of age: A cohort study from Sweden

Tornhammar, Per, Ueda, Peter, Hult, Martin, Simila, Henry, Eyles, Darryl and Norman, Mikael (2014) Season of birth, neonatal vitamin D status, and cardiovascular disease risk at 35 y of age: A cohort study from Sweden. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition99 3: 472-478. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.072520

Developmentally vitamin D-deficient rats show enhanced prepulse inhibition after acute δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

Burne, T. H. J., Alexander, S., Turner, K. M., Eyles, D. W. and McGrath, J. J. (2014) Developmentally vitamin D-deficient rats show enhanced prepulse inhibition after acute δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Behavioural Pharmacology25 3: 236-244. doi:10.1097/FBP.0000000000000041

The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats

Byrne, Jacqueline H., Voogt, Meggie, Turner, Karly M., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2013) The impact of adult vitamin D deficiency on behaviour and brain function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PLoS ONE8 8: e71593.1-e71593.14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071593

Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia

Kesby, James P., Cui, Xiaoying, Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2013) Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience7 111: 1-13. doi:10.3389/fncel.2013.00111

Low vitamin D concentration exacerbates adult brain dysfunction

Cui, Xiaoying, Groves, Natalie J., Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl W. and McGrath, John J. (2013) Low vitamin D concentration exacerbates adult brain dysfunction. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition97 5: 907-908. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.061176

The vitamin D receptor in dopamine neurons; its presence in human substantia nigra and its ontogenesis in rat midbrain

Cui, X., Pelekanos, M., Liu, P-Y, Burne, T. H. J., McGrath, J. J. and Eyles, D. W. (2013) The vitamin D receptor in dopamine neurons; its presence in human substantia nigra and its ontogenesis in rat midbrain. Neuroscience236 77-87. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.035

Cognitive performance and response inhibition in developmentally vitamin D (DVD)-deficient rats

Turner, Karly M., Young, Jared W., McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2013) Cognitive performance and response inhibition in developmentally vitamin D (DVD)-deficient rats. Behavioural Brain Research,242 1: 47-53. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.12.029

Adult vitamin D deficiency leads to behavioural and brain neurochemical alterations in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice

Groves, Natalie J., Kesby, James P., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J., Mackay-Sim, Alan and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2013) Adult vitamin D deficiency leads to behavioural and brain neurochemical alterations in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. Behavioural Brain Research241 1: 120-131. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.12.001

Effect of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy on offspring bone structure, composition and quality in later life

Lanham, S. A., Roberts, C., Habgood, A. K., Alexander, S., Burne, T. H. J., Eyles, D. W., Trueman, C. N., Cooper, M., McGrath, J. J. and Oreffo, R. O. C. (2013) Effect of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy on offspring bone structure, composition and quality in later life. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease4 1: 49-55. doi:10.1017/S2040174412000542

Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia

Calcagno, B., Eyles, D., van Alphen, B. and van Swinderen, B. (2013) Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry3 e206.1-e206.10. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.139

Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease

Eyles, Darryl, Burne, Thomas H. J. and McGrath, John J. (2013) Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology,34 1: 47-64. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.07.001

Neonatal vitamin D status and childhood peanut allergy: a pilot study

Mullins, Raymond James, Clark, Sunday, Wiley, Veronica, Eyles, Darryl and Camargo, Carlos A. (2012) Neonatal vitamin D status and childhood peanut allergy: a pilot study. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology109 5: 324-328. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2012.07.009

Prenatal Vitamin D deficiency induces an early and more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the second generation

Fernandes de Abreu, Diana Andrea, Landel, Verena, Barnett, Adrian G., McGrath, John, Eyles, Darryl and Feron, Francois (2012) Prenatal Vitamin D deficiency induces an early and more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the second generation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences13 9: 10911-10919. doi:10.3390/ijms130910911

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: Convergent clues from epidemiology and neuropathology

Piper, Michael, Beneyto, Monica, Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl W., Lewis, David A. and McGrath, John J. (2012) The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: Convergent clues from epidemiology and neuropathology.Psychiatric Clinics of North America35 3: 571-584. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2012.06.002

Transient knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase during development has persistent effects on behaviour in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Formella, Isabel, Scott, Ethan, Burne, Thomas H.J., Lauren Harms, Liu, Pei-Yun, Karly Turner, Cui, Xiaoying and Eyles, Darryl (2012) Transient knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase during development has persistent effects on behaviour in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS ONE7 8: e42482.1-e42482.8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042482

Interferon-β and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D interact to modulate relapse risk in MS

Stewart, Niall, Simpson, Steve Jr., van der Mei, Ingrid, Ponsonby, Anne-Louise, Blizzard, Leigh, Dwyer, Terrence, Pittas, Fotini, Eyles, Darryl, Ko, Pauline and Taylor, Bruce V. (2012) Interferon-β and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D interact to modulate relapse risk in MS. Neurology79 3: 254-260. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31825fded9

Distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in dried blood spots and implications for its quantitation by tandem mass spectrometry

Kvaskoff, David, Ko, Pauline, Simila Henry and Eyles, Darryl (2012) Distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in dried blood spots and implications for its quantitation by tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B901 47-52. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.05.040

Neuroanatomy and psychomimetic-induced locomotion in C57BL/6J and 129/X1SvJ mice exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency

Harms, Lauren R., Cowin, Gary, Eyles, Darryl W., Kurniawan, Nyoman D., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2012) Neuroanatomy and psychomimetic-induced locomotion in C57BL/6J and 129/X1SvJ mice exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency. Behavioural Brain Research230 1: 125-131. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.02.007

Attentional Processing in C57BL/6J Mice Exposed to Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency

Harms, Lauren R., Turner, Karly M., Eyles, Darryl W., Young, Jared W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2012) Attentional Processing in C57BL/6J Mice Exposed to Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency. PLoS One7 4 Article No. ee35896: . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035896

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring

Kesby, James P., O'Loan, Jonathan C., Alexander, Suzanne, Deng, Chao, Huang, Xu-Feng, McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2012) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring. Psychopharmacology220 3: 455-463. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2492-0

Schizophrenia: Do all roads lead to dopamine or is this where they start? Evidence from two epidemiologically informed developmental rodent models

Eyles, D., Feldon, J. and Meyer, U. (2012) Schizophrenia: Do all roads lead to dopamine or is this where they start? Evidence from two epidemiologically informed developmental rodent models. Translational Psychiatry2 e81.1-e81.10. doi:10.1038/tp.2012.6

The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function

James Kesby, Eyles, Darryl, Burne, Thomas H.J. and McGrath, John J. (2011) The effects of vitamin D on brain development and adult brain function. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology347 1-2: 121-127. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.014

Effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive and emotional functioning in young adults: a randomised controlled trial

Dean, Angela J., Bellgrove, Mark, Hall, Teresa, Phan, Wei Ming Jonathan, Eyles, Darryl, Kvaskoff, David and McGrath, John J. (2011) Effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive and emotional functioning in young adults: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE6 11: e25966.1-e25966.7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025966

Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with impaired vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function and hypertension in young rats

Tare, Marianne, Emmett, Sarah J., Coleman, Harold A., Skordilis, Con, Eyles, Darryl W., Morley, Ruth and Parkington, Helena C. (2011) Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with impaired vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function and hypertension in young rats. Journal of Physiology589 19: 4777-4786. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.214726

Increased de novo copy number variants in the offspring of older males

Flatscher-Bader, T., Foldi, C. J., Chong, S., Whitelaw, E., Moser, R. J., Burne, T. H. J., Eyles, D. W. and McGrath, J. J. (2011) Increased de novo copy number variants in the offspring of older males. Translational Psychiatry1 Article # e34: . doi:10.1038/tp.2011.30

Vitamin D and the brain

Harms, Lauren R., Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl W. and McGrath, John J. (2011) Vitamin D and the brain. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism25 4: 657-669. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.009

Vitamin D in fetal brain development

Eyles, Darryl, Burne, Thomas and McGrath, John (2011) Vitamin D in fetal brain development. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology22 6: 629-636. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.05.004

New perspectives on rodent models of advanced paternal age: Relevance to autism

Foldi, Claire J., Eyles, Darryl W., Flatscher-Bader, Traute, McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2011) New perspectives on rodent models of advanced paternal age: Relevance to autism. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience,5 32: 1-7. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00032

Infection with the wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia leads to higher levels of melanization in the hemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Aedes aegypti

Thomas, P, Kenny, N, Eyles, D, Moreira, LA, O'Neill, SL and Asgari, S (2011) Infection with the wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia leads to higher levels of melanization in the hemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Aedes aegypti. Developmental and Comparative Immunology35 3: 360-365. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2010.11.007

The Effects of breeding protocol in C57BL/6J mice on adult offspring behaviour

Foldi, Claire J., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2011) The Effects of breeding protocol in C57BL/6J mice on adult offspring behaviour. Plos One6 3: e18152-1-e18152-7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018152

The wMelPop strain of Wolbachia interferes with dopamine levels in Aedes aegypti

Moreira, Luciano A., Ye, Yixin H., Turner, Karly, Eyles, Darryl W., McGraw, Elizabeth A. and O'Neill, Scott L. (2011) The wMelPop strain of Wolbachia interferes with dopamine levels in Aedes aegypti. Parasites and Vectors4 28: 1-5. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-28

Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters pup retrieval but not isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat

Burne, Thomas H.J., O'Loan, Jonathan, Splatt, Karisha, Alexander, Suzanne, McGrath, John J. and Eyles, Darryl (2011) Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters pup retrieval but not isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat. Physiology and Behavior102 2: 201-204. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.11.006

Big ideas for small brains: What can psychiatry learn from worms, flies, bees and fish?

Burne, T. H. J., Scott, E., van Swinderen, B., Hilliard, M., Reinhard, J., Claudianos, C., Eyles, D. W. and McGrath, J. J. (2011) Big ideas for small brains: What can psychiatry learn from worms, flies, bees and fish?. Molecular Psychiatry,16 1: 7-16. doi:10.1038/mp.2010.35

Maternal vitamin D deficiency alters the expression of genes involved in dopamine specification in the developing rat mesencephalon

Cui Xiaoying, Pelekanos, Matthew, Burne, Thomas H.J., McGrath, John J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2010) Maternal vitamin D deficiency alters the expression of genes involved in dopamine specification in the developing rat mesencephalon. Neuroscience Letters486 3: 220-223. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2010.09.057

Developmental vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia: A 10-year update

McGrath, John J., Burne, Thomas H., Feron, Francois, Mackay-Sim, Allan and Eyles, Darryl W. (2010) Developmental vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia: A 10-year update. Schizophrenia Bulletin36 6: 1073-1078. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq101

Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia: A population-based case-control study

McGrath, John J., Eyles, Darryl W., Pedersen, Carsten B., Anderson, Cameron, Ko, Pauline, Burne, Thomas H., Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent, Hougaard, David M. and Mortensen, Preben B. (2010) Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia: A population-based case-control study. Archives of General Psychiatry67 9: 889-894. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.110

The utility of neonatal dried blood spots for the assessment of neonatal vitamin D status

Eyles, Darryl W., Morley, Ruth, Anderson, Cameron, Ko, Pauline, Burne, Thomas, Permezel, Michael, Mortensen, Preben B., Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent, Hougaard, David M. and McGrath, John J. (2010) The utility of neonatal dried blood spots for the assessment of neonatal vitamin D status. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology24 3: 303-308. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2010.01105.x

Vitamin D and autism: Does skin colour modify risk?

Eyles, Darryl (2010) Vitamin D and autism: Does skin colour modify risk?. Acta Paediatrica99 5: 645-647. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01797.x

Advanced paternal age is associated with alterations in discrete behavioural domains and cortical neuroanatomy of C57BL/6J mice

Foldi, Claire J., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2010) Advanced paternal age is associated with alterations in discrete behavioural domains and cortical neuroanatomy of C57BL/6J mice. European Journal of Neuroscience31 3: 556-564. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07074.x

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters dopamine-mediated behaviors and dopamine transporter function in adult female rats

Kesby, James P, Cui, Xiaoying, O'Loan, Jonathan, McGrath, John J, Burne, Thomas HJ and Eyles, Darryl W (2010) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters dopamine-mediated behaviors and dopamine transporter function in adult female rats. Psychopharmacology208 1: 159-168. doi:10.1007/s00213-009-1717-y

Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development

Eyles, Darryl, Cui, Xiaoying, Kesby, James, Harms, Lauren, Ko, Pauline, McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H.J. (2009) Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development. Psychoneuroendocrinology34 Supplement 1: S247-S257. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.04.015

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters dopamine turnover in neonatal rat forebrain

Kesby, James P., Cui, Xiaoying, Ko, Pauline, McGrath, John J., Burne, Thomas H. J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2009) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters dopamine turnover in neonatal rat forebrain. Neuroscience Letters461 2: 155-158. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.05.070

Vitamin D, a neuro-immunomodulator: Implications for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases

Fernandes de Abreu, D. A., Eyles, D. and Feron, F. (2009) Vitamin D, a neuro-immunomodulator: Implications for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. Psychoneuroendocrinology34 1: S265-S277. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.05.023

Vitamin D and the brain: A neuropsychiatric perspective

Harvey, Louise, Burne, Thomas H. J., Cui, Xiaoying, Mackay-Sim, Alan, Eyles, Darryl and McGrath, John J. (2009) Vitamin D and the brain: A neuropsychiatric perspective. Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism7 2: 199-205. doi:10.1007/s12018-009-9031-0

Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood

Saha, Sukanta, Barnett, Adrian G., Foldi, Claire, Burne, Thomas H., Eyles, Darryl W., Buka, Stephen L. and McGrath, John J. (2009) Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood. PLoS Medicine6 3: 0303-0311. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000040

A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay of 25OH vitamin D₃ and 25OH vitamin D₂ in dried blood spots

Eyles, Darryl, Cameron Anderson, Ko, Pauline, Alun Jones, Andrew Thomas, Burne, Thomas H.J., Mortensen, Preban, Bo, Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent, Hougaard, David, Michael and McGrath, John J. (2009) A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay of 25OH vitamin D₃ and 25OH vitamin D₂ in dried blood spots. Clinica Chimica Acta403 1-2: 145-151. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2009.02.005

Protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of rats exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency

McGrath, John, Iwazaki, Takeshi, Eyles, Darryl, Burne, Thomas, Cui, Xiaoying, Ko, Pauline and Matsumoto, Izuru (2008) Protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of rats exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency. PLoS One3 6: . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002383

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters adult behavior in 129/SvJ and C57BL/6J mice

Harms, Lauren R., Eyles, Darryl W., McGrath, John J., Mackay-Sim, Alan and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2008) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters adult behavior in 129/SvJ and C57BL/6J mice. Behavioural Brain Research,187 2: 343-350. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2007.09.032

Animal models may help fractionate shared and discrete pathways underpinning schizophrenia and autism (Open Peer Commentary)

Burne, Thomas H. J., Eyles, Darryl and McGrath, John J. (2008) Animal models may help fractionate shared and discrete pathways underpinning schizophrenia and autism (Open Peer Commentary). Behavioral And Brain Sciences,31 3: 264-265. doi:10.1017/S0140525X08004251

Hyperserotonaemia and reduced brain serotonin in NaS1 sulfate transporter null mice

Lee, S., Kesby, J., Muslim, M. D., Steane, S. E., Eyles, D., Dawson, P. A. and Markovich, D. (2007) Hyperserotonaemia and reduced brain serotonin in NaS1 sulfate transporter null mice. NeuroReport18 18: 1981-1985. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282f22998

The impact of nonlinear exposure-risk relationships on seasonal time-series data: modelling Danish neonatal birth anthropometric data

McGrath, John, Barnett, Adrian, Eyles, Darryl, Burne, Thomas, Pedersen, Carsten B. and Mortensen, Preben Bo (2007) The impact of nonlinear exposure-risk relationships on seasonal time-series data: modelling Danish neonatal birth anthropometric data. BMC Medical Research Methodology7 Article Number: 45. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-7-45

Maternal vitamin D depletion alters neurogenesis in the developing rat brain

Cui, X. Y., McGrath, J. J., Burne, T. H. J., Mackay-Sim, A. and Eyles, D. W. (2007) Maternal vitamin D depletion alters neurogenesis in the developing rat brain. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience25 4: 227-232. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2007.03.006

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters brain protein expression in the adult rat: Implications for neuropsychiatric disorders

Almeras, L., Eyles, D., Benech, P., Laffite, D., Villard, C., Patatian, A., Boucraut, J., Mackay-Sim, A., McGrath, J. and Feron, F. (2007) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters brain protein expression in the adult rat: Implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Proteomics7 5: 769-780. doi:10.1002/pmic.200600392

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial, cytoskeletal and synaptic proteins in the adult rat brain

Eyles, D., Almeras, L., Benech, P., Patatian, A., Mackay-Sim, A., McGrath, J. and Feron, F. (2007) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial, cytoskeletal and synaptic proteins in the adult rat brain. Journal of Steriod Biochemistry and Molecular Biology103 3-5: 538-545. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.096

No association between serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 level and performance on psychometric tests in NHANes III

McGrath, J. J., Scragg, R., Chant, D. C., Eyles, D., Burne, T. H. J. and Obradovic, D. (2007) No association between serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 level and performance on psychometric tests in NHANes III. Neuroepidemiology29 1-2: 49-54. doi:10.1159/000108918

The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude

van der Mei, I. A. F., Ponsonby, A., Engelsen, O., Pasco, J. A., McGrath, J. J., Eyles, D. W., Blizzard, L., Dwyer, T., Lucas, R. and Jones, G. (2007) The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency across Australian populations is only partly explained by season and latitude. Environmental Health Perspectives115 8: 1132-1139. doi:10.1289/ehp.9937

Vitamin D deficiency during various stages of pregnancy in the rat: Its impact on development and behavior in adult offspring

O'Loan, Jonathan, Eyles, Darryl W., Kesby, James, Ko, Pauline, McGrath, John J. and Burne, Thomas H. J. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency during various stages of pregnancy in the rat: Its impact on development and behavior in adult offspring. Psychoneuroendocrinology32 3: 227-234. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.12.006

Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency in the rat alters adult behaviour independently of HPA function

Eyles, D. W., Rogers, F., Buller, K., McGrath, J. J., Ko, P., French, K. and Burne, T. H. J. (2006) Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency in the rat alters adult behaviour independently of HPA function.Psychoneuroendocrinology31 8: 958-964. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.05.006

Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia

Kesby, James P., Burne, Thomas H.J., McGrath, John J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2006) Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry60 6: 591-596. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.02.033

Hyperlocomotion associated with transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is ameliorated by acute restraint

Burne, Thomas H.J., OLoan, Jonathon, McGrath, John J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2006) Hyperlocomotion associated with transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is ameliorated by acute restraint. Behavioural Brain Research174 1: 119-124. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2006.07.015

Seasonal variation in birth weight

McGrath, John J., Burne, Thomas H. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2005) Seasonal variation in birth weight. Canadian Medical Association Journal173 7: 733-733. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1050100

The association between birth weight, season of birth and latitude

McGrath, John J., Barnett, Adrian G. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2005) The association between birth weight, season of birth and latitude. Annals of Human Biology32 5: 547-559. doi:10.1080/03014460500154699

Season of birth and risk of brain tumors in adults

Ko, P., Eyles, D., Burne, T., Mackay-Sim, A. and McGrath, J. J. (2005) Season of birth and risk of brain tumors in adults. Neurology64 7: 1317-1317.

Behavioural characterization of Vitamin D receptor knockout mice

Burne, T. H. J., McGrath, J. J., Eyles, D. W. and Mackay-Sim, A. (2005) Behavioural characterization of Vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Behavioural Brain Research157 2: 299-308. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2004.07.008

Developmental Vitamin D-3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain

Feron, F, Burne, THJ, Brown, J, Smith, E, McGrath, JJ, Mackay-Sim, A and Eyles, DW (2005) Developmental Vitamin D-3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain. Brain Research Bulletin65 2: 141-148. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2004.12.007

Distribution of the Vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain

Eyles, Darryl W., Smith, Steven, Kinobe, Robert, Hewison, Martin and McGrath, John J. (2005) Distribution of the Vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. Journal Of Chemical Neuroanatomy29 1: 21-30. doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2004.08.006

Transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with subtle alterations in learning and memory functions in adult rats

Becker, A., Eyles, D. W., McGrath, J. J. and Grecksch, G. (2005) Transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with subtle alterations in learning and memory functions in adult rats. Behavioural Brain Research161 2: 306-312. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2005.02.015

Maternal vitamin D3 deprivation and the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle during rat brain development

Ko, Pauline, Burkert, Rachel, McGrath, John and Eyles, Darryl (2004) Maternal vitamin D3 deprivation and the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle during rat brain development. Developmental Brain Research153 1: 61-68. doi:10.1016/j.devbrainres.2004.07.013

Combined prenatal and chronic postnatal vitamin D deficiency in rats impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle

Burne, T. H. J., Feron, F., Brown, J., Eyles, D. W., McGrath, J. J. and Mackay-Sim, A. (2004) Combined prenatal and chronic postnatal vitamin D deficiency in rats impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Physiology & Behavior81 4: 651-655. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.03.004

Transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with hyperlocomotion in adult rats

Burne, T. H. J., Becker, A., Brown, J., Eyles, D. W., MacKay-Sim, A. and McGrath, J. J. (2004) Transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with hyperlocomotion in adult rats. Behavioural Brain Research154 2: 549-555. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2004.03.023

Low maternal vitamin D as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a pilot study using banked sera

McGrath, J. J., Eyles, Darryl Walter, Mowry, Bryan, Yolken, R. and Buka, S. (2003) Low maternal vitamin D as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a pilot study using banked sera. Schizophrenia Research63 1 - 2: 73-78. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00435-8

Vitamin D receptor expression in the embryonic rat brain

Burket, Rachel, McGrath, John and Eyles, Darryl (2003) Vitamin D receptor expression in the embryonic rat brain.Neuroscience Research Communications33 1: 63-71. doi:10.1002/nrc.10081

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons

Brown, Jillanne, Bianco, John I., McGrath, John J. and Eyles, Darryl W. (2003) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nerve growth factor, promotes neurite outgrowth and inhibits mitosis in embryonic rat hippocampal neurons.Neuroscience Letters343 2: 139-143. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00303-3

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: a review of recent developments

McGrath, J. J., Feron, F. P., Burne, T. H. J., Mackay-Sim, A. and Eyles, D. W. (2003) The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: a review of recent developments. Annals of Medicine35 2: 86-93. doi:10.1080/07853890310010005

Vitamin D3 and brain development

Eyles, D., Brown, J., Mackay-Sim, A., McGrath, J. and Feron, F. (2003) Vitamin D3 and brain development.Neuroscience118 3: 641-653. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00040-X

Neuronal calcium-binding proteins and schizophrenia

Eyles, DW, McGrath, JJ and Reynolds, GP (2002) Neuronal calcium-binding proteins and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research57 1: 27-34. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00299-7

Vitamin D: the neglected neurosteroid?

McGrath, J., Feron, F., Eyles, D. and Mackay-Sim, A. (2001) Vitamin D: the neglected neurosteroid?. Trends In Neurosciences24 10: 570-571. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(00)01949-4

Formation of pyridinium species of haloperidol in human liver and brain

Eyles, D. W., McGrath, J. J. and Pond, S. M. (1996) Formation of pyridinium species of haloperidol in human liver and brain. Psychopharmacology125 3: 214-219. doi:10.1007/BF02247331

Determination of Haloperidol and Reduced Haloperidol in the Plasma and Blood of Patients on Depot Haloperidol

Eyles, Darryl W., Whiteford, Harvey A., Stedman, Terry J. and Pond, Susan M. (1992) Determination of Haloperidol and Reduced Haloperidol in the Plasma and Blood of Patients on Depot Haloperidol. Psychopharmacology106 2: 268-274. doi:10.1007/BF02801983

Identification of Potentially Neurotoxic Pyridinium Metabolite in the Urine of Schizophrenic Patients Treated with Haloperidol

Subramanyam, Babu, Pond, Susan M., Eyles, Darryl W., Whiteford, Harvey A., Fouda, Hassan G. and Castagnoli, Neal (1991) Identification of Potentially Neurotoxic Pyridinium Metabolite in the Urine of Schizophrenic Patients Treated with Haloperidol. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications181 2: 574-578. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(91)91228-5

Effects of nifedipine on psychosis and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients

Stedman, Terry, Whiteford, Harvey, Eyles, Darryl, Welham, Joy and Pond, Susan (1991) Effects of nifedipine on psychosis and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology11 1: 43-47.

The University of Queensland

  • Professor John McGrath, QBI
  • Associate Professor Tom Burne, QBI
  • Associate Professor Bruno Van Swinderen, QBI
  • Dr Ethan Scott
  • Associate Professor M Belgrove

National/International

  • Professor F Feron - Marseille, France
  • Professor A Becker - Magdeburg, Germany
  • Dr D Hougaard - Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Dr Pamela von Hurst - New Zealand
  • Associate Professor Rebecca J. Schmidt - UC Davis
  • Professor Emma Whitelaw - QIMR
  • Professor Dallas English, - University of Melbourne
  • Professor Anne-Louise Ponsonby - Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
  • Dr M Cairns - University of Newcastle
  • Dr I van-der Mei - University of Tasmania/The University of Queensland


We have developed a new animal model of schizophrenia. We elevate dopamine selectively in the dorsal striatum by stereotaxically delivering genetic constructs to the substantia. We call this model Elevated Dopamine in Prodromal Schizophrenia (EDiPs). Our aim is to follow the course and examine the alterations in brain connectivity induced by EDiPS. Our ultimate aim is to intervene to block the disease process.

Project 1:  How does EDiPS affect cortical and subcortical connectivity and can we intervene to block EDiPS induced abnormalities in connectivity and behavioural phenotypes?

Project 2:  This project will firstly establish a new and more dopaminergically-selective EDiPS model using a TH-Cre rat and DREADD technology. Secondly, the student will establish whether early post-natal or late (Puberty) stages of brain development represent the critical window for EDiPS-induced phenotypes.

In a second series of studies we have selectively blocked both early features of autism and late characteristic behaviours associated with schizophrenia in the well-described Maternal Immune Activation animal model using the hormonal form of vitamin D.

Project 3:  We now want to understand what neuroprotective mechanisms we have triggered in this model and if we could also replicate these findings using the dietary form of vitamin D.

How to apply